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GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index: Open Data – 2018 Edition

By Alexandra Shaw, Michelle Winowatan, Andrew Young, and Stefaan Verhulst
Please find below the latest installment in The GovLab Index series, inspired by Harper’s Index. “The GovLab Index: Open Data 2018” provides an update to our previous Open Data installments: The GovLab Index: Open Data, (Updated and Expanded of 2013, The GovLab Index: Open Data (Updated) of 2015, and The GovLab Index: Open Data – 2016 Edition.
To share additional, illustrative statistics on open data, or other issues at the nexus of technology and governance, please reach out to Andrew Young (andrew@thegovlab.org) 

Value and Impact

  • Direct market value of open data in EU from 2016 to 2020: estimated EUR 325 billion
  • Predicted number of Open Data jobs in Europe by 2020: 100,000 (35% increase)
  • The projected year at which all 28+ EU member countries will have a fully operating open data portal: 2020
  • Between 2016 and 2020, the market size of open data in Europe is expected to increase by 36.9%, and reach this value by 2020: EUR 75.7 billion
  • Estimated cost savings for public administration in the EU by 2020: EUR 1.7 billion
  • 2013 estimates of potential value of global open data, as estimated by McKinsey: $3 trillion annually
  • Potential yearly value of open data in Australia: AUD 25 billion
  • Value of Transport for London open data projects: £115 million per year
  • Value that open data can help unlock in economic value annually across seven sectors in the United States: $3-5 trillion

Public Views on and Use of Open Government Data

  • Number of Americans who do not trust the federal government or social media sites to protect their data: Approximately 50%
  • Key findings from The Economist Intelligence Unit report on Open Government Data Demand:
    • Percentage of respondent who say the key reason why governments open up their data is to create greater trust between the government and citizens: 70%
    • Percentage of respondent who say OGD plays an important role in improving lives of citizens: 78%
    • Percentage of respondent who say OGD helps with daily decision making especially for transportation, education, environment: 53%
    • Percentage of respondent who cite lack of awareness about OGD and its potential use and benefits as the greatest barrier to usage: 50%
    • Percentage of respondent who say they lack access to usable and relevant data: 31%
    • Percentage of respondent who think they don’t have sufficient technical skills to use open government data: 25%
    • Percentage of respondent who feel the number of OGD apps available is insufficient, indicating an opportunity for app developers: 20%
    • Percentage of respondent who say OGD has the potential to generate economic value and new business opportunity: 61%
    • Percentage of respondent who say they don’t trust governments to keep data safe, protected, and anonymized: 19%

Efforts and Involvement

  • Time that’s passed since open government advocates convened to create a set of principles for open government data – the instance that started the open data government movement: 10 years
  • Countries participating in the Open Government Partnership today: 79 OGP participating countries and 20 subnational governments
  • Percentage of “open data readiness” in Europe according to European Data Portal: 72%
    • Open data readiness consists of four indicators which are presence of policy, national coordination, licensing norms, and use of data.
  • Number of U.S. cities with Open Data portals: 27
  • Number of governments who have adopted the International Open Data Charter: 62
  • Number of non-state organizations endorsing the International Open Data Charter: 57
  • Number of countries analyzed by the Open Data Index: 94
  • Number of Latin American countries that do not have open data portals as of 2017: 4 total – Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua
  • Number of cities participating in the Open Data Census: 39

Demand for Open Data

  • Open data demand measured by frequency of open government data use according to The Economist Intelligence Unit report:
    • Australia
      • Monthly: 15% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 22% of respondents
      • Annually: 10% of respondents
    • Finland
      • Monthly: 28% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 18% of respondents
      • Annually: 20% of respondents
    • France
      • Monthly: 27% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 17% of respondents
      • Annually: 19% of respondents
    • India
      • Monthly: 29% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 20% of respondents
      • Annually: 10% of respondents
    • Singapore
      • Monthly: 28% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 15% of respondents
      • Annually: 17% of respondents
    • UK
      • Monthly: 23% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 21% of respondents
      • Annually: 15% of respondents
    • US
      • Monthly: 16% of respondents
      • Quarterly: 15% of respondents
      • Annually: 20% of respondents
  • Number of FOIA requests received in the US for fiscal year 2017: 818,271
  • Number of FOIA request processed in the US for fiscal year 2017: 823,222
  • Distribution of FOIA requests in 2017 among top 5 agencies with highest number of request:
    • DHS: 45%
    • DOJ: 10%
    • NARA: 7%
    • DOD: 7%
    • HHS: 4%

Examining Datasets

  • Country with highest index score according to ODB Leaders Edition: Canada (76 out of 100)
  • Country with lowest index score according to ODB Leaders Edition: Sierra Leone (22 out of 100)
  • Number of datasets open in the top 30 governments according to ODB Leaders Edition: Fewer than 1 in 5
  • Average percentage of datasets that are open in the top 30 open data governments according to ODB Leaders Edition: 19%
  • Average percentage of datasets that are open in the top 30 open data governments according to ODB Leaders Edition by sector/subject:
    • Budget: 30%
    • Companies: 13%
    • Contracts: 27%
    • Crime: 17%
    • Education: 13%
    • Elections: 17%
    • Environment: 20%
    • Health: 17%
    • Land: 7%
    • Legislation: 13%
    • Maps: 20%
    • Spending: 13%
    • Statistics: 27%
    • Trade: 23%
    • Transport: 30%
  • Percentage of countries that release data on government spending according to ODB Leaders Edition: 13%
  • Percentage of government data that is updated at regular intervals according to ODB Leaders Edition: 74%
  • Number of datasets available through:
  • Number of datasets classed as “open” in 94 places worldwide analyzed by the Open Data Index: 11%
  • Percentage of open datasets in the Caribbean, according to Open Data Census: 7%
    • Number of companies whose data is available through OpenCorporates: 158,589,950

City Open Data

  • New York City
  • Singapore
    • Number of datasets published in Singapore: 1,480
    • Percentage of datasets with standardized format: 35%
    • Percentage of datasets made as raw as possible: 25%
  • Barcelona
    • Number of datasets published in Barcelona: 443
    • Open data demand in Barcelona measured by:
      • Number of unique sessions in the month of September 2018: 5,401
    • Quality of datasets published in Barcelona according to Tim Berners Lee 5-star Open Data: 3 stars
  • London
    • Number of datasets published in London: 762
    • Number of data requests since October 2014: 325
  • Bandung
    • Number of datasets published in Bandung: 1,417
  • Buenos Aires
    • Number of datasets published in Buenos Aires: 216
  • Dubai
    • Number of datasets published in Dubai: 267
  • Melbourne
    • Number of datasets published in Melbourne: 199

Sources

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GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index: Collective Intelligence

By Hannah Pierce and Audrie Pirkl
Please find below the next installment in The GovLab Index series inspired by the Harper’s Index. Following the 2017 Collective Intelligence Conference, this installment highlights outcomes, impacts and trends related to efforts to tap into collective intelligence toward solving public problems. We begin with a selection of statistics across the Collective Intelligence universe and follow with a sector-specific breakdown of the current state of play. We encourage readers to contribute to our own collective intelligence. If there are figures that should be shared here, please contact us at info@thegovlab.org.

The Collective Intelligence Universe

  • Amount of money that Reykjavik’s Better Neighbourhoods program has provided each year to crowdsourced citizen projects since 2012: € 2 million (Citizens Foundation)
  • Number of U.S. government challenges that people are currently participating in to submit their community solutions: 778 (Challenge.gov).
  • Percent of U.S. arts organizations used social media to crowdsource ideas in 2013, from programming decisions to seminar scheduling details: 52% (Pew Research)
  • Number of Wikipedia members who have contributed to a page in the last 30 days: over 120,000 (Wikipedia Page Statistics)
  • Number of languages that the multinational crowdsourced Letters for Black Lives has been translated into: 23 (Letters for Black Lives)
  • Number of comments in a Reddit thread that established a more comprehensive timeline of the theater shooting in Aurora than the media: 1272 (Reddit)
  • Number of physicians that are members of SERMO, a platform to crowdsource medical research: 800,000 (SERMO)
  • Number of citizen scientist projects registered on SciStarter: over 1,500 (Collective Intelligence 2017 Plenary Talk: Darlene Cavalier)
  • Entrants to NASA’s 2009 TopCoder Challenge: over 1,800 (NASA)

Infrastructure

  • Number of submissions for Block Holm (a digital platform that allows citizens to build “Minecraft” ideas on vacant city lots) within the first six months: over 10,000 (OpenLearn)
  • Number of people engaged to The Participatory Budgeting Project in the U.S.: over 300,000. (Participatory Budgeting Project)
    • Amount of money allocated to community projects through this initiative: $238,000,000

Health

  • Percentage of Internet-using adults with chronic health conditions that have gone online within the US to connect with others suffering from similar conditions: 23% (Pew Research)
  • Number of posts to Patient Opinion, a UK based platform for patients to provide anonymous feedback to healthcare providers: over 120,000 (Nesta)
    • Percent of NHS health trusts utilizing the posts to improve services in 2015: 90%
    • Stories posted per month: nearly 1,000 (The Guardian)
  • Number of tumors reported to the English National Cancer Registration each year: over 300,000 (Gov.UK)
  • Number of users of an open source artificial pancreas system: 310 (Collective Intelligence 2017 Plenary Talk: Dana Lewis)

Government

  • Number of submissions from 40 countries to the 2017 Open (Government) Contracting Innovation Challenge: 88 (The Open Data Institute)
  • Public-service complaints received each day via Indonesian digital platform Lapor!: over 500 (McKinsey & Company)
  • Number of registered users of Unicef Uganda’s weekly, SMS poll U-Report: 356,468 (U-Report)
  • Number of reports regarding government corruption in India submitted to IPaidaBribe since 2011: over 140,000 (IPaidaBribe)

Business

  • Reviews posted since Yelp’s creation in 2009: 121 million reviews (Statista)
  • Percent of Americans in 2016 who trust online customer reviews as much as personal recommendations: 84% (BrightLocal)
  • Number of companies and their subsidiaries mapped through the OpenCorporates platform: 60 million (Omidyar Network)

Crisis Response

Public Safety

  • Number of sexual harassment reports submitted to from 50 cities in India and Nepal to SafeCity, a crowdsourcing site and mobile app: over 4,000 (SafeCity)
  • Number of people that used Facebook’s Safety Check, a feature that is being used in a new disaster mapping project, in the first 24 hours after the terror attacks in Paris: 4.1 million (Facebook)
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GovLab Blog GovLab Index Open Data Open Data 500

The GovLab Index: Open Data – 2016 Edition

By Robert Montano and Prianka Srinivasan
Please find below the latest installment in The GovLab Index series, inspired by Harper’s Index. “The GovLab Index: Open Data” provides an update on our previous Open Data installment, and highlights global trends in Open Data and the release of public sector information.
Previous installments of the Index include Prizes and Challenges, Measuring Impact with Evidence, The Data Universe, Participation and Civic Engagement and Trust in Institutions. Please share any additional statistics and research findings on the intersection of technology in governance with us by emailing shruti at thegovlab.org.
Value and Impact

Public Views on and Use of Open Government Data in the US

  • Percentage of Americans surveyed that used the internet to find data or information pertaining to government in 2015  according to Pew Research study: 65%
  • How many Americans think the federal government shares data very or somewhat effectively with the public: 44%
  • How many Americans “could think of an example where local government did not provide enough useful information about data and information to the public”: 19%
  • Percentage of Americans who have “used government sources to find information about student or teacher performance”: 20%
    • Those who have used government sources “to look for information on the performance of hospitals or health care providers”: 17%
    • To find out about contracts between governmental agencies and external firms: 7%
  • Percentage of Americans with a smartphone who have used open data: 84%
  • Percentage of Americans surveyed who think governments are very effective in sharing data to the public according to Pew Research study: 5%

Efforts and Involvement

  • Countries participating in the Open Government Partnership today: 70
    • In 2011? 8
  • Countries with open data portals: 52
    • In 2013? Approximately 40
  • Percentage of governments that share open data on the performance of public education: 12% 
  • Percentage of governments that release open data on health services: 7%
  • Number of cities globally that participated in 2016 International Open Data Hackathon Day: 84
  • Percentage of “open data readiness” assessed by European Data Portal: 59%
  • Number of U.S. cities with Open Data Sites in 2016: 119
  • Number of governments who have adopted the International Open Data Charter: 35
  • Number of non-state organizations who have endorsed the International Open Data Charter: 30
  • Number of places analyzed by the Open Data Index: 122
    • In 2014? 97
  • Top 5 countries in Open Data Barometer rankings: UK, US, Sweden, France, New Zealand
  • Percentage of countries, out of 122 assessed, that open their election results: 58%
    • In Sub-Saharan Africa? 42%
    • In Asia? 41%
    • In Eastern Europe? 71%
    • In Latin America? 71%
  • Number of cities participating in the Open Data Census: 39
  • Latin American countries with the highest number of open-data driven companies surveyed by the World Bank: Mexico, Chile and Brazil
  • Asian countries with the highest number of open-data driven companies surveyed by the World Bank: India, Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia
  • Average amount of equity and quasi-equity investment needed to finance data-driven companies in Latin America and Asia: $2 and $3 million
  • Savings through real-time transport data in London, UK: £15-58 million each year 
  • Rate of completion on coordination mechanism commitments among OGP members: 71%
  • Rate of completion on sub-national open data commitments among OGP members: 75%

Examining Datasets

  • Number of datasets available through data.gov: 189,814
  • Number of datasets available through data.gov.uk: 39, 710
  • Number of datasets available through data.gov.au: 23,270
  • Number of datasets available via the Open Data Index: 156
  • Countries assessed by the Open Data Barometer (ODB) that release data on government spending: 8%
  • Number of datasets classed as “open” by the Open Data Index: 9% (down from 12% in 2014)
  • Percentage of countries surveyed by ODB (92) with open data initiatives in place: 55%
  • Percentage of data available online in ODB survey: 76%
  • Percentage of civil societies/tech communities utilizing data in ODB survey: 93%
  • ODB Government data updated at regular intervals: 73%
  • Average ranking of 92 countries by ODB with some form of open data policy (scaled 0-100): 33
  • Percentage of datasets found by ODB in top 10 ranked countries: 50%
  • Percentage of open datasets in Australia, according to Open Data Census: 30%
  • Number of datasets in the Caribbean according to Open Data Census: 27
  • Percentage of open datasets in the Caribbean, according to Open Data Census: 7%

 
Sources
About the Open Government Partnership” Open Government Partnership, 2016.
Aligning Supply and Demand for Better Governance.” Independence Reporting Mechanism Report of the Open Government Partnership. 2015.
Americans’ Views on Open Government Data.” Pew Research Center. April 2015.
Characterization study of the Infomediary Sector”. Datos.gov.es, July 2012.
Creating Value through Open Data,” European Data Portal, European Commission. 2015.

Data Will Only Get Us So Far. We Need it to be Open.” World Economic Forum. January 16, 2016.
Datasets of the United Kingdom
The Economic Benefits of Commercial GPS Use in the U.S. and The Costs of Potential Disruption.” NPD Report. Nam D. Pham. 2011.

The Economic Impact of Open Data”, Socrata. February 27, 2014.

“The economic impact of open data: what do we already know?”, International Trade Forum, December 2015.
European Data Portal, accessed September, 2016.
International Open Data Hackathon” Open Data Day, accessed September 2016.
Investment in Open Data Challenge Series could see 5 to 10-fold return to UK economy over 3 years” Open Data Institute News,October 2015.
Landsat Benefited U.S. Economy by $1.8 Billion in 2011.” NASA Landsat Science. August 30, 2015.
Making sense of US$3 trillion – Estimating the value of Open Data for Small Developing Economies”, IODC Blog. May, 2015.  
New Development: Leveraging Big Data Analytics in the Public Sector.” Pandula Gamage. Public Money and Management. June 2016.
New Surveys Reveal Dynamism, Challenges of Open Data-Driven Businesses in Developing Countries”, Ala Morrison, Data Blog of the World Bank. December 15, 2014.
New Research Shows the Impact of Open Data in Agriculture and Nutrition”, Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition. May 28, 2015.
New Zealand’s Christchurst Earthquake Clusters.” The Governance Lab.
Open Data Barometer, 2015 Global Report. World Wide Web Foundation and Open Data Institute.
Open for Business: How Open Data Can Help Achieve the G20 Growth Target” Omidyar Network, June 2014.
The Open Data Economy Unlocking Economic Value by Opening Government and Public Data” by Dinand Tinholt, Capgemini Consulting. February 2013.  
Open Data for Economic Growth”, Report of the World Bank. June 25, 2014.
Open Data in the United States”, data.gov, accessed September 2016.
Permission granted: The economic value of data assets under alternative policy regimes”, 2016 Report. Open Data Institute.
Policy in the Data Age: Data Enablement for the Common Good.” Karim Tadjeddine and Martin Lundqvist. McKinsey and Company. August 2016.
Shakespeare Review: An Independent Review of Public Sector Information”, Commissioned by the UK Government. May 2013.
Researching the Economics of Data to Help Government make Better Choices, Jack Hardinges, Jeni Tennison and Peter Wells
Review of recent studies on PSI reuse and related market developments.” European Commission. 2011.
“Tracking the state of government Open Data” Global Open Data Index, accessed September 2016.
URBAN MOBILITY IN THE SMART CITY AGE, Schneider Group, ARUP, The Climate Group. 2016
US City Open Data Census” Open Knowledge International, accessed September 2016.
What is the Economic Impact of Geo Services?”, Oxera Report. 2013.

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GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index: Crime and Criminal Justice Data

Please find below the latest installment in The GovLab Index series, inspired by Harper’s Index.
Previous installments of the Index include Prizes and Challenges, Measuring Impact with Evidence, The Data Universe, Participation and Civic Engagement and Trust in Institutions.
“The GovLab Index: Crime and Criminal Data” provides information about the type of crime and criminal justice data collected, shared and used in the United States. Because it is well known that data related to the criminal justice system is often times unreliable, or just plain missing, this index also highlights some of the issues that stand in the way of accessing useful and in-demand statistics.
Please share any additional statistics and research findings on the use of data within the criminal justice system with us by emailing Ryan at thegovlab.org.
Data Collections: National Crime Statistics

  • Number of incident-based crime datasets created by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): 2
  • Number of years the National Incident Based Reporting System has been in use and has supposed to have replaced the UCR: 28
  • Number of U.S. Statistical Agencies: 13
  • How many of those are focused on criminal justice: 1, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
  • Number of data collections focused on criminal justice the BJS produces: 61
  • Number of federal-level APIs available for crime or criminal justice data: 1, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).
  • Frequency of the NCVS: annually
  • Number of Statistical Analysis Centers (SACs), organizations that are essentially clearinghouses for crime and criminal justice data for each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands: 53

Open data, data use and the impact of those efforts

  • Number of datasets that are returned when “criminal justice” is searched for on Data.gov: 417, including federal-, state- and city-level datasets
  • Number of datasets that are returned when “crime” is searched for on Data.gov: 281
  • The percentage that public complaints dropped after officers started wearing body cameras, according to a study done in Rialto, Calif.: 88
  • The percentage that reported incidents of officer use of force fell after officers started wearing body cameras, according to a study done in Rialto, Calif.: 5
  • The percent that crime decreased during an experiment in predictive policing in Shreveport, LA: 35  
  • Number of crime data sets made available by the Seattle Police Department – generally seen as a leader in police data innovation – on the Seattle.gov website: 4:
    • Major crime stats by category in aggregate
    • Crime trend reports
    • Precinct data by beat
    • State sex offender database
  • Number of datasets mapped by the Seattle Police Department: 2:
    • 911 incidents
    • Police reports
  • The year the Tiahart Amendment prevented a firearms trace database from being made public: 2003  
  • Number of states where risk assessment tools must be used in pretrial proceedings to help determine whether an offender is released from jail before a trial: at least 11.

Police Data

  • Number of federally mandated databases that collect information about officer use of force or officer involved shootings, nationwide: 0
  • The year a crime bill was passed that called for data on excessive force to be collected for research and statistical purposes, but has never been funded: 1994
  • Number of police departments that committed to being a part of the White House’s Police Data Initiative: 21
  • Percentage of police departments surveyed in 2013 by the Office of Community Oriented Policing within the Department of Justice that are not using body cameras, therefore not collecting body camera data: 75
  • Number of state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States – each generating data separately – according to the most recent law enforcement agency census conducted by the BJS: 17,985

The criminal justice system

  • Parts of the criminal justice system where data about an individual can be created or collected: at least 6
    • Entry into the system (arrest)
    • Prosecution and pretrial
    • Sentencing
    • Corrections
    • probation/parole
    • recidivism

Sources

Categories
GovLab Blog GovLab Index Open Data Open Data 500

The GovLab Index: Open Data (Updated)

Please find below the latest installment in The GovLab Index series, inspired by Harper’s Index. “The GovLab Index: Open Data” provides an update on our previous Open Data installment, and highlights global trends in Open Data and the release of public sector information.
Previous installments of the Index include Prizes and Challenges, Measuring Impact with Evidence, The Data Universe, Participation and Civic Engagement and Trust in Institutions. Please share any additional statistics and research findings on the intersection of technology in governance with us by emailing shruti at thegovlab.org.
Value and Impact

Public Views on and Use of Open Government Data in the US

  • Percentage of Americans who have “used the internet to find data or information pertaining to government”: 65%
  • How many Americans think the federal government shares data very or somewhat effectively with the public: 44%
  • How many Americans “could think of an example where local government did not provide enough useful information about data and information to the public”: 19%
  • Percentage of Americans who have “used government sources to find information about student or teacher performance”: 20%
    • Those who have used government sources “to look for information on the performance of hospitals or health care providers”: 17%
    • To find out about contracts between governmental agencies and external firms: 7%

Efforts and Involvement

  • Number of U.S. based companies identified by the GovLab that use government data in innovative ways: 500+
  • Number of Mexican companies and NGOs being identified by the GovLab and the Federal Government of Mexico that use open government data: 100
  • Number of open data initiatives worldwide in 2009: 2
    • Number of open data initiatives worldwide in 2013: over 300
  • Number of open government data portals worldwide in 2015: nearly 400
  • Number of cities globally that participated in 2015 International Open Data Hackathon Day: 222, up from 102 in 2013
  • Number of countries with Open Data sites in 2015 according to data.gov: 45
    • Number of U.S. cities with Open Data Sites in 2015: 46
    • U.S. states with open data initiatives in 2015: 39
  • Membership growth in the Open Government Partnership from launch in 2011 until 2015: from 8 to 65 countries
  • Number of time series indicators (GDP, foreign direct investment, life expectancy, internet users, etc.) in the World Bank Open Data Catalog: over 8,000
  • Number of countries surveyed by the Open Data Barometer in 2015: 86, up from 77 in 2013
  • How many of the 86 countries in the Barometer publish data on government spending in 2015: 8%
    • On government contracts: 6%
    • On ownership of companies: 3%
    • On performance of health services: 7%
    • On performance of education services: 12%
  • How many of the 1,290 datasets surveyed for the Barometer met the criteria of being truly open: 10%, up from 7% in 2013
  • How many of 77 countries surveyed by the Open Data Barometer have some form of Open Government Data Initiative in 2013: over 55%
    • How many Open Government Data initiatives have dedicated resources with senior level political backing: over 25%
  • How many countries are listed in the Global Open Data Index in 2015: 97, up from 60 in 2013
    • How many of the 970 key datasets in the Index are open in 2015: 106, up from 87 in 2013
    • Top three countries in the Global Open Data Index ranking in 2014: United Kingdom, Denmark, France
      • Ranking of the US in 2014: 8th, down from 2nd in 2013
  • The different levels of Open Data Certificates a data user or publisher can achieve “along the way to world-class open data”: 4 levels, Raw, Pilot, Standard and Expert
  • The number of data ecosystems categories identified by the OECD: 3, data producers, infomediaries, and users
  • Number of stories about the impact of open data crowdsourced by the Sunlight Foundation in May 2015: over 140

Examining Datasets

  • How many datasets have been made open by governments worldwide: more than 1 million
  • Number of datasets on the U.S. site data.gov in May 2015: 132,088
  • How many released key datasets are truly open for re-use and can be used to hold government accountable, stimulate enterprise, and promote better social policy: fewer than 1 in 10
  • Percentage of datasets published in both machine-readable forms and under open licenses: less than 7%
  • Number of datasets on the Australian government’s open data website that were found to be unusable: one-third
  • Out of 23 countries surveyed by Capgemini, those who share comprehensive data that includes both breadth and granularity: 22%
    • Those who lacked enhanced search capabilities: over 60%
    • Countries who share data that is not regularly updated: 96%
    • Those who are not utilizing user participation capabilities: 87%
    • Average score of evidence of impact in 43 countries with some form of open data policy: 1.7 out of 10
    • Percentage of impact questions for which no evidence could be found: 45%

Sources:

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GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index: Prizes and Challenges

Please find below the latest installment in the GovLab Index series, inspired by Harper’s Index. “The GovLab Index: Prizes and Challenges” highlights recent findings about two key techniques in shifting innovation from institutions to the general public:

  • Prize-Induced Contests – using monetary rewards to incentivize individuals and other entities to develop solutions to public problems; and
  • Grand Challenges – posing large, audacious goals to the public to spur collaborative, non-governmental efforts to solve them.

You can read more about Governing through Prizes and Challenges here. You can also watch Alph Bingham, co-founder of Innocentive, answer the GovLab’s questions about challenge authoring and defining the problem here.
Previous installments of the Index include Measuring Impact with Evidence, The Data Universe, Participation and Civic Engagement and Trust in Institutions. Please share any additional statistics and research findings on the intersection of technology in governance with us by emailing shruti at thegovlab.org.
Prize-Induced Contests

  • Year the British Government introduced the Longitude Prize, one of the first instances of prizes by government to spur innovation: 1714
  • President Obama calls on “all agencies to increase their use of prizes to address some of our Nation’s most pressing challenges” in his Strategy for American Innovation: September 2009
  • The US Office of Management and Budget issues “a policy framework to guide agencies in using prizes to mobilize American ingenuity and advance their respective core missions”:  March 2010
  • Launch of Challenge.gov, “a one-stop shop where entrepreneurs and citizen solvers can find public-sector prize competitions”: September 2010
    • Number of competitions currently live on Challenge.gov in February 2015: 22 of 399 total
    • How many competitions on Challenge.gov are for $1 million or above: 23
  • The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act is introduced, which grants “all Federal agencies authority to conduct prize competitions to spur innovation, solve tough problems, and advance their core missions”: 2010
  • Value of prizes authorized by COMPETES: prizes up to $50 million
  • Fact Sheet and Frequently Asked Questions memorandum issued by the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of Management and Budget to aid agencies to take advantage of authorities in COMPETES: August 2011
  • Number of prize competitions run by the Federal government from 2010 to April 2012: 150
  • How many Federal agencies have run prize competitions by 2012: 40
  • Prior to 1991, the percentage of prize money that recognized prior achievements according to an analysis by McKinsey and Company: 97%
    • Since 1991, percentage of new prize money that “has been dedicated to inducement-style prizes that focus on achieving a specific, future goal”: 78%
  • Value of the prize sector as estimated by McKinsey in 2009: $1-2 billion
  • Growth rate of the total value of new prizes: 18% annually
  • Growth rate in charitable giving in the US: 2.5% annually
  • Value of the first Horizon Prize awarded in 2014 by the European Commission to German biopharmaceutical company CureVac GmbH “for progress towards a novel technology to bring life-saving vaccines to people across the planet in safe and affordable ways”: €2 million
  • Number of solvers registered on InnoCentive, a crowdsourcing company: 355,000+ from nearly 200 countries
    • Total Challenges Posted: 2,000+ External Challenges
    • Total Solution Submissions: 40,000+
    • Value of the awards: $5,000 to $1+ million
    • Success Rate for premium challenges: 85%

Grand Challenges

  • Value of the Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize, sponsored in part by DOE to develop production-capable super fuel-efficient vehicles: $10 million
    • Number of teams around the world who took part in the challenge “to develop a new generation of technologies” for production-capable super fuel-efficient vehicles: 111 teams
  • Time it took for the Air Force Research Laboratory to receive a workable solution on “a problem that had vexed military security forces and civilian police for years” by opening the challenge to the world: 60 days
  • Value of the HHS Investing in Innovation initiative to spur innovation in Health IT, launched under the new COMPETES act: $5 million program
  • Number of responses received by NASA for its Asteroid Grand Challenge RFI which seeks to identify and address all asteroid threats to the human population: over 400
  • The decreased cost of sequencing a single human genome as a result of the Human Genome Project Grand Challenge: $7000 from $100 million
  • Amount the Human Genome Project Grand Challenge has contributed to the US economy for every $1 invested by the US federal government: $141 for every $1 invested
  • The amount of funding for research available for the “Brain Initiative,” a collaboration between the National Institute of Health, DARPA and the National Science Foundation, which seeks to uncover new prevention and treatment methods for brain disorders like Alzheimer’s, autism and schizophrenia: $100 million
  • Total amount offered in cash awards by the Department of Energy’s “SunShot Grand Challenge,” which seeks to eliminate the cost disparity between solar energy and coal by the end of the decade: $10 million

Sources

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GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index on Internet Governance — Access (Infrastructure)

Please find below the latest installment of the GovLab Index on Internet Governance, inspired by the Harper’s Index. “Internet Governance — Access (Infrastructure)” is part of a series of Indexes that focus on the five main areas within Internet Governance: access, content, code, trust, and trade. This edition focuses on infrastructural aspects of Internet access and connectivity. Previous installments in the series include Access (Net Neutrality), Code, Content, Trade, and Trust. Please share any additional statistics and research findings with us by emailing shruti at thegovlab.org.
Internet Access

Broadband in the United States

  • National average speed for Internet connections in the US: 31.85 Mbps
  • Most common household connection type in the United States in 2013: cable modem (42.8%)
    • Percentage of households with DSL connections: 21.2%
    • Households that reported using only a dial-up connection: 1%
  • Percentage of Americans who lack access to 25Mbps/3Mbps: 17% or 55 million
    • How many rural Americans lack access to 25Mbps/3Mbps: 53% or 22 million
    • How many urban Americans lack access to 25Mbps/3Mbps: 8%
  • Amount the broadband gap closed in 2014: 3%
  • Broadband as currently defined by the US Federal Communication Commission (FCC): 4 Mbps down, 1 Mbps up
  • Definition of broadband being proposed by Tom Wheeler, Chairman of the FCC, in January 2015: 25 Mbps down,  3 Mbps up

Fiber Optics

Sources

Categories
GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index on Internet Governance — Trust

Please find below the latest installment of the GovLab Index on Internet Governance, inspired by the Harper’s Index. “Internet Governance — Trust” is part of a series of Indexes that focus on the five main areas within Internet Governance: access, content, code, trust, and trade. This edition on Trust examines cybercrime, cybersecurity and preparedness. Previous installments in the series include AccessCode, Content, and Trade
Also see the GovLab’s Selected Readings on Mapping the Internet Governance Ecosystem for an overview of the actors, processes, and challenges relating to Internet governance.
Economic Impact

  • Estimated cost of cybercrime to the global economy: $400 billion
  • Countries with the highest levels of cybercrime relative to gross domestic product (GDP): Germany (1.6%) and Netherlands (1.5%)
    • Level of cybercrime in the U.S. relative to GDP: 0.64%
    • In China: 0.63%
  • Cost of cybercrime in terms of percentage of global GDP: 0.8%
    • In comparison, cost of the global drug trade in terms of global GDP: 0.9%
  • Losses from cybercrime could cost as many as 200,000 American jobs, roughly a third of 1% decrease in employment for the US.
  • Amount reported as lost by a British company from a single attack in 2013: $1.3 billion
  • Amount lost by two banks in the Persian Gulf in an attack spanning a few hours in 2013: $45 million
  • How many US organizations lost $1 million or more due to cybercrime incidents in 2013: 7%
    • How many global organizations reported the same loss: 3%

Number of Cyber Attacks

  • How many people in the U.S. had their personal information stolen in 2013: 40 million
  • Number of companies that were notified by the US government that they had been hacked in 2013: 3,000
  • Number of US households affected by a cybersecurity attack on JP Morgan bank in 2014: 76 million
  • Number of credit card numbers stolen by cybercriminals from Target in March 2014: 40 million, with an additional 70 million compromised
  • How many respondents to the US State of Cybercrime Survey reported detecting a security breach in the past 12 months: 3 in 4
    • Those who were more concerned about cybersecurity threats this year than in the past: 59%
  • Number of significant cyber attacks since 2006, understood as “successful attacks on government agencies, defense and high tech companies, or economic crimes with losses of more than a million dollars” according to the Center for Strategic and International Studies: 155

Security and Preparedness

  • When the 28 countries in NATO made an agreement that a cyberattack on any NATO member could trigger a collective response from all its allies: September 2014
  • How many respondents from PriceWaterhouse Cooper’s Annual Global CEO survey reported that they were worried about the impact of cyber threats to their growth prospects: 49%
    • Percentage of CEOs in the US who reported the same concern: 69%
  • How many executives from financial institutions surveyed believe that cybersecurity is a strategic risk for their companies: 70%
  • Number of large companies across industries and geographies surveyed that stated having “nascent” or “developing” risk-management capabilities: 90%
  • How many companies were rated “mature” across practice areas studied: 5%
  • Percentage of companies where security concerns had delayed the adoption of public cloud computing by a year or more: 70%
  • How many global companies with high performing security practices “collaborate with others to deepen their knowledge of security and threat trends”: 82%
  • How many US organizations surveyed who had suffered a cybersecurity breach could not identify the source of the attack: 26%
    • Those that cite the culprit to be outside actors such as hackers: 72%
    • How many respondents point to “insiders” such as former or current employees, service providers and contractors as the source of breaches: 28%
    • How many organizations reported having a plan to respond to insider threats: 49%
    • Those that have a mobile security strategy: 31%
    • How many encrypt mobile devices: 38%
    • Median maximum amount that US banking and finance organizations invest in cybersecurity: $2,500 per employee
    • Median maximum amount that US retail and consumer products organizations invest in cybersecurity: $400 per employee
    • How many respondents have hired a Chief Security Officer or Chief Information Security Officer: 28%

Sources:

Categories
GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index on Internet Governance — Trade

Please find below the latest installment of the GovLab Index on Internet Governance, inspired by the Harper’s Index. “Internet Governance — Trade” is part of a series of Indexes that focus on the five main areas within Internet Governance: access, content, code, trust, and trade. This edition focuses on digital cross border trade and cryptocurrencies. Previous installments in the series include Internet Governance — Code, Internet Governance — Content and Internet Governance — Access.
Digital Cross Border Trade

Cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin
Activity and Usage

  • The price, or value, of a Bitcoin as of Sept 17, 2014: $455 USD
  • Total number of Bitcoins: 13,266,474
  • How many Bitcoin transactions are made on average per hour: 3,219
  • Value of the average Bitcoin transaction: $2,635 USD

Comparison with other payment systems

Beliefs and Attitudes

  • Percentage of US adults surveyed who were not familiar with Bitcoin in January 2014: 76%
  • How many US adults have never and would never consider using an alternative form of currency like Bitcoin: 79%
    • How many would rather own gold than Bitcoin: 80%
    • Those who believe that Bitcoin hurts the US dollar: 38%

Sources

Categories
GovLab Blog GovLab Index

The GovLab Index on Internet Governance — Code

Please find below the latest installment of the GovLab Index on Internet Governance, inspired by the Harper’s Index. “Internet Governance — Code” is part of a series of Indexes that focus on the five main areas within Internet Governance: access, content, code, trust, and trade. This edition focuses on the IPv4 to IPv6 transition and the introduction of new generic top level domains (gTLDs). Previous installments include Internet Governance — Content and Internet Governance — Access.
IPv4 to IPv6 Transition

  • How many bits are in an IPv4 address: 32 bits
  • Number of Internet addresses possible with IPv4: 4.3 billion
  • How many bits are in an IPv6 address: 128 bits
  • Number of Internet addresses possible with IPv6: 340 undecillion (3.4 × 1038) addresses
  • Year in which the Internet Society first organized World IPv6 Day, a coordinated 24-hour “test flight” that helped demonstrate major websites around the world are well positioned for the move to an IPv6 world: 2011
  • Percentage of users who access Google using IPv6 in September 2014: 4.5%
  • IPv6 deployment in the USA: 32%
  • Highest IPv6 deployment in Asia and Oceania: Japan, 30%
    • Deployment in China: 6.5%
    • Deployment in India: 21%
  • Highest IPv6 deployment in Europe: Belgium, 47%
  • Highest IPv6 deployment in South America: Peru, 25%
  • Highest IPv6 deployment in Africa: Tunisia, 23%
  • How many Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) exist to provide number resource allocation and registration services that support the global operation of the Internet: 5

New gTLDs

  • How many generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs) existed in 2012 (including .com, .org, etc.): 22
  • How many country-specific TLDs exist today (including .de, .nl, and .co.uk): 295
  • Number of applications for new gTLDs submitted to ICANN as of July 2014: 1930
    • Those in North America: 911
    • Europe: 675
    • Asia Pacific: 303
    • South America: 24
    • Africa: 17
  • Evaluation fee paid to ICANN to apply for a new gTLD: $185,000
  • How many new gTLD applications have been “delegated”, i.e., introduced into the Internet as of 29 Aug 2014: 378
    • How many applications have been withdrawn: 238
    • How many are pending string contention resolution: 479
  • Top five new gTLDs as of September 08, 2014:
    • .xyz (481,774 registrations, 22% of total)
    • .berlin (138,577 registrations, 6% of total)
    • .club (103,429 registrations, 4% of total)
    • .guru (70,351 registrations, 3% of total)
    • .wang (64,180 registrations, 2.9% of total)
  • Biggest selling Internationalized Domain Name (IDN): .在线 (.online) (35,849 registrations)

Registrations

  • Number of marketers surveyed in the U.S. who said new gTLDs would make the Internet confusing: 75%
    • How many total U.S. respondents espoused this view: 50%
    • How many respondents globally espoused this view: 43%

Sources